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5G-Advanced: 3GPP Rel-18 SA2 Features

On the 20th of December 2021, 3GPP SA TSG approved a total of 28 WIs/SIs for the SA2 Rel-18 at the SA plenary meeting #94e. 3GPP Rel-18 is the first release of the 5G-Advanced standard. The approved projects include TSN, NW slicing, support for edge computing, NW automation, location services, AI and ML-based services, XR services to name a few. In this post, we elaborate on each of the approved WI/SI entering 5G-Advanced standardization.
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3GPP Rel-18: 5G-Advanced RAN Features

3GPP Rel-18 is the first release of the 5G-Advanced standard. On the 17th of December 2021, 3GPP TSG RAN plenary (3GPP RAN TSG #94e) approved 28 Release-18 projects (i.e., Study- and Work-Items, SI/WI) with the following split among RAN groups: 12 RAN1-led projects, 10 RAN2-led projects, 5 RAN3-led projects, and 1 RAN4-led project. Those topics include AI/ML for NR and NG-RAN, NTN and MIMO enhancements, evolution for sidelink, UAV, RedCap, SON, QoE, XR services, to name a few. In this post, we elaborate on each of the approved projects entering 5G-Advanced standardization.
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O-RAN RIC

RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC): Overview, xApps, and rApps

RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC) is to enable abstracting out part of functionality from the eNB or gNB that was traditionally hosted at the base station in the form of xApps or rApps in the O-RAN architecture. The functions, to which we relate here in the RAN domain include e.g., mobility management or interference management. The decisions are made in the xApps, and RIC then enforces policies towards the RAN elements and controls them using the open interface, namely E2. In this post, we elaborate on the RIC, its functional split, xApps, and rApps.
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non-rt-ric

O-RAN Non-RT RIC: Architecture and rApps

The goal of Non-RT RIC is to support intelligent RAN optimization by providing policy-based guidance, model management, and enrichment information to the Near-RT RIC function so that the RAN can be optimized. Non-RT RIC works within the management plane and operates on seconds and minutes timescale. In this post, we provide the architecture of the Non-RT RIC and discuss the example applications, called rApps.
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v2x-blog

V2X within the 3GPP standards – Overview, Requirements and Architecture

As the aim of the 5G system is to provide ubiquitous connectivity, communications in transportation are an important part of it, formulating one of the so-called verticals. In this post, we present the main features of the 3GPP cellular vehicle-to-anything (C-V2X) standards, that comprise the Release 14/15 LTE-V2X and its successor – NR-V2X. Both utilize the so-called PC5 interface, also known as sidelink.
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Open RAN (O-RAN) Webinar Collection

In the past couple of months, we delivered several webinars together with Intelefy University related to Open RAN. In this post, you can find the collection of them, in the particular order, where the first one serves as an overview and high-level discussion, whereas the next ones dig more and more into details of O-RAN, as specified by O-RAN ALLIANCE.
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xapp-implementation-blog

xApp Implementation: O-RAN Traffic Steering Use Case

In this post, we focus on the implementation of a simple xApp tailored for the traffic steering use case. The goal of this xApp is to support the network providers to reassign the traffic from one gNB to the other in order to meet some predefined criteria. We will see some results of the great opportunity offered by Open RAN that the operator can easily install, modify or remove the xApp when needed.
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ci-cd-blog

CI/CD in O-RAN design

In this post, we briefly present, how the concept of open RAN meets immediately one of the key approaches in distributed software design, mainly CI/CD. Clearly, these two domains cannot be compared directly, but as we will see, the O-RAN concept modifies significantly the whole software design process.
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Open RAN challenges post

Challenges to Open RAN

Open RAN is the separation of software functionality from the underlying hardware. This is called “disaggregation.” It is also the process of defining functional blocks in the network and clearly and precisely specifying the interfaces between those functional blocks. Most who study such things believe it to be true. But before we break out the Champaign, we should be a bit more circumspect and evaluate the threats to Open RAN. What might prevent Open RAN from reaching its potential?
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„The O-RAN Whitepaper”

Open RAN, as a new approach to building mobile networks, offers faster innovation and the possibility of lowering costs. This whitepaper provides an overview of Open RAN in general, and O-RAN specifically. The O-RAN concept, relevant standardization, and ecosystem players are introduced. The architecture as defined by the O-RAN Alliance is described. Near-Real-Time RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC) along with the idea of xApps is discussed. The use cases for O-RAN are overviewed with a particular focus on Traffic Steering.
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